General elections is one of most important event in a democracy. In a country like India where there is huge diversity and with diversity it’s natural that there will be numerous political parties. Political parties contest elections, form government and work for a term of 5 years.
Conducting elections in a country like India is very difficult task. To conduct the elections smoothly and fairly, Election Commission was formed on 25 January 1950. The Election Commission operates under the authority of constitution as per article 324. Being a constitutional authority, it is among the few institution which function with both autonomy and freedom.
The President of India appoints the Chief election Commissioner and the deputy Chief commissioner of India. The commissioner is generally an IAS or IRS officer. They have a tenure of 6 years and it is mandatory for them to retire at the age of 65. The Chief Election commissioner can only be removed by the process of impeachment. Other commissioners can be removed by the President on the recommendations of the Chief Election commissioner of India.
The election commission has numerous functions and powers. The most important function of the election commission is to conduct free and fair elections and implement the Model code of conduct. The guidelines in the model code of conduct are to be adhered by the political parties, although they are not obliged to do so as there is no constitutional power. The election commission looks after the money that is being used by the political parties. They put restrictions on the expenditure of political parties. They also see that anyone violets the guidelines, they are to be punished accordingly.
The Election commission is continuously trying to modernize the process of conducting elections and thus playing an important part in a democracy.